People with mental health problems experience high rates of unemployment. There are various schemes delivering support to people with mental health problems who are trying to find employment. Supported employment tries to place people into competitive jobs. People are placed quickly in normal work settings where they receive intensive support and training from ‘job coaches’.
Individual placement and support (IPS) is a more specified scheme that includes: finding local jobs; a rapid job search; customer choice in what they want from the employment service; close working between employment and mental health teams; attention to people’s preferred job, their strengths and work experience; ongoing and, if necessary, long-term individual support; and the benefits of counselling. Employment specialists act to identify people’s job interests, assist with job finding, give job support and engage other support services. IPS uses assertive outreach to deliver training, advice and vocational support in the community. Augmented supported employment is where employment support is given with other supplementary techniques, such as social skills training, motivational classes and various types of rehabilitation. Other approaches are many and varied, including: job workshops; job counselling; peer support; partnerships with business; and the Clubhouse model, which involves training, work experience, peer support and transitional employment and IPS because they do not search for immediate and competitive employment. However, all approaches involve periods of preparation, education and on-the-job training.
This review compares supported employment and IPS with other approaches for finding employment. Drawing from a total of 2259 people with mental health problems in 14 studies, the review has two main findings: 1) Supported employment increases the length and time of people’s employment; 2) People on supported employment find jobs quicker. Supported employment and IPS are better than other approaches in these two respects, but there is limited information or measurable differences on other important issues for service users.
For example, there is little information on issues such as improving quality of life, impact on people’s mental health, days in hospital and costs. Furthermore, the review built its main findings on limited statistical evidence drawn mainly from studies carried out in North America and Europe. Future studies should address a fuller range of information and outcomes. Longer studies are needed to see how long the effects of supported employment last.